Writing a business plan document and don’t yet have money coming in, you might be wondering how you would arrive at a sales number for a financial forecast. It’s normal for the financials of a business plan to be your best educated guess at what the next few years of numbers will be. The top line of your profit and loss statement will be the money that you have coming in, or your revenue from sales. This number should be your initial revenue from sales without any deductions. To calculate taxes in very simple terms, you multiply the appropriate tax rate by your income. However, in most cases calculation of corporate income taxes is a complicated process, as you need to take into account many factors like tax write-offs, tax credits, and provisions as well as various tax structures.


That can be compared with its competitors to help investors decide if a company is outperforming or underperforming its peers. If an investor pays attention to successive income statements of a company over time, that can also help the investor detect changes in profitability over time that could lead to increasing or decreasing earnings in the future. An income statement is a financial statement in which a company reports its income and expenses over a specific period of time, usually a quarter or fiscal year. It can be used to analyze a company’s operating performance, including things like its profit margins or burn rate.

Balance sheet example for YYZ Corp. for the year ending Dec. 31, 2022 (in millions)

Taking the past income statement numbers of the company, the future growth, and the company’s revenue projections are forecasted. For example, in the sample income statement, the finance manager or the analyst can predict the year’s projected numbers by analyzing the past trends of revenue and expenses. Financial analysis of an income statement can reveal that the costs of goods sold are falling, or that sales have been improving, while return on equity is rising. Income statements are also carefully reviewed when a business wants to cut spending or determine strategies for growth.

The seller agrees to provide goods or services, and the buyer agrees to make payment. In response to the second weakness, accountants gather and report information about the effects of the various types of changes in owners’ equity throughout the year. Firstly, instead of focusing on changes in wealth, accounting income represents changes in owners’ equity . Secondly, this approach does not provide detailed information about the events that produced the income.

Operating income

Managers, therefore, prefer to borrow money to finance operations and expansions, but too much debt increases financial leverage and creates more risk. It lists all the company’s assets in cash balances, accounts receivable, inventory and fixed assets, including real estate, plant buildings and equipment. The liabilities side of the balance sheet itemizes all the company’s debts – short- and long-term – and the amount of equity capital. First, input historical data for any available time periods into the income statement template in Excel.

All the activity and the quantum of the action performed by the company during the period are summarized in the income statement. Because of this, horizontal analysis is important to investors and analysts. By conducting a horizontal analysis, you can tell what’s been driving an organization’s financial performance over the years and spot trends and growth patterns, line item by line item.

What is an income statement?

Such costs include the building where manufacturing occurs, interest paid on loans, insurance costs, etc. This income statement reflects the type that would be typically created for a small business. For ease of reading, it’s better to group things together into categories of expenses—for example, office supplies, or advertising costs.